The issue of abortion started to be perceived as a public health problem during the late Ottoman era and early Republican Turkey by the state and committing an abortion was accepted as a crime that was committed against the whole society. This paper states that the criminalization of abortion starting from late Ottoman era as an intervention on reproductivity is an act on female body since it implied the assignment of a duty on women as child raisers and reduces female identity into motherhood. Hence, this state interference on female body paved the way for women’s inferior position subjected to only being mothers by eulogizing the duty of child bearing. In this paper, the concept of abortion is studied through legal changes during the late Ottoman and early Republican era by the edicts and legal documents of the term indicating the applications and events related to abortion. The policies in early Republican Turkey went hand in hand with the applications of the general frame work of health policies of late Ottoman era which were a part of the reform movements starting in late 18th century.